In the 19th century, Impressionism brought subversive changes to European painting.

2023-11-21 16:48

Impressionist painting is the most important artistic achievement in the 19th century, which has brought subversive changes to European painting and opened the beginning of modern art.. Impressionist painters praised all kinds of subtle natural landscapes bathed in natural light.

Monet is the initiator and leader of impressionist painting movement, and is known as "the father of impressionism". Renaud is a color master in Impressionism, and also an admirer and admirer of female body. Degas's artistic style is very unique, and he especially likes to portray beautiful ballerinas.

The "stippling school", one of the impressionist expressions, was once all the rage, and pissarro was the pioneer of this technique. This technique greatly enhances the texture of color. Later, Seurat boldly developed the "stippling method" to the extreme, so that the original intention of capturing instantaneous color no longer existed, but produced a unique sense of tranquility.

At the end of 19th century, late impressionism appeared in French painting. This school advocates that artists should recreate the painting image according to their own subjective feelings, get rid of the shackles of objective images completely, abandon the plot factors and literary emotions in their works, and only express the beauty of the world through the painting language itself.

Until today, the works of impressionist masters are still popular art treasures. The following small series has compiled some representative figures of Impressionism and their representative works for everyone.

Monet's Sunrise Impression

1872 oil painting on canvas 48×63 cm, collected in Mamodan Museum, Paris.

This is the sunrise at the French port of le havre depicted by Monet when he returned to his hometown in 1872. A few strokes and vibrant colors will instantly show the sunrise scene filled with morning mist on the canvas. Critics at that time sneered at this painting and called this joint exhibition of painters "Impressionist Painting Exhibition". However, after many years, it has become the most attractive word in art, and countless people are crazy about it. As an impressionist master, Monet's treatment of light and color established a starting point for abstract art.

Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Moon Night

In 1889, the oil painting on canvas was 73×92 cm, which was collected by the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

The stars in the night sky are running endlessly in the whirlpool of the painter's emotion, and the twinkling stars are like the sun in the high-pitched and fiery melody. The whole starry sky is burning with the passion of the universe, and the viewer feels an unprecedented mystery, and the excited heart is full of awe, which also makes people see the painting skills beyond the painter's passion. This is one of Van Gogh's most imaginative and passionate works, which was created one month after he was admitted to a mental hospital. His life was quite tragic, and he was never recognized before his death.

Edward Manet's Lunch on the Grass

1863 Oil on canvas 208×264.5 cm Paris Orsay Art Collection

This is a painting that makes people feel a little weird. The young woman is naked, like an ancient goddess, and there is a semi-naked woman bathing leisurely in the distance. However, the two accompanying men are well dressed, as if they were modern guests who walked into classical painting. This is Manet's early masterpiece. When the painting was first exhibited in 1863, it caused an uproar. Manet's creation was regarded as an artistic rebellion.

Pierre Auguste Renoir's The Ball

In 1876, the oil painting on canvas was 78×114 cm, and the Orsay Art Collection in Paris.

The flowing colors filled the whole picture with joyful melody, and the unique hearty atmosphere of the dance was vividly displayed in the gorgeous whirl of light and shadow. Like all impressionist painters, Renoir is obsessed with the experience and description of life, and the ballroom in Paris is the main place for him to feel life. He paid great attention to the capture of light and the dynamic expression of characters, and once spent a lot of time painting outdoors with his good friend Monet. During Renoir's life, he created more than 6,000 colorful outdoor works.

Edgar Degas's absinthe

In 1876, the oil painting on canvas was 92×68 cm, and the Orsay Art Collection in Paris.

The cafe in Paris is filled with faint sadness, and the woman's eyes are low, and her inner anguish is like the thick absinthe in front of her, spicy and bitter. The man smoked his pipe, but his expression was helpless after suffering setbacks. The color of the picture is adjusted to bluish gray of absinthe, which shows the gloom of the cafe and the sadness of the protagonist's heart. Degas's masterpiece has caused a heated debate, and conservative art critics believe that the authenticity of the painting is detrimental to the nobility of art. But gold will shine everywhere, and real art will be recognized one day, showing its valuable value.

Paul Cézanne's Still Life with Curtains and Patterned Pots

In 1899, the oil painting on canvas was 55×74.5 cm, which was collected by Elmy Tashi Museum in St. Petersburg.

Cezanne once said, "Shock the whole Paris society with an apple." After reading this work, you will understand that this statement is by no means an exaggeration. Balance is the secret of powerful shock. The curtain with oblique cut picture and the seemingly random tablecloth maintain a clever balance relationship in shape and color. Cezanne abandoned the general perspective and introduced an oblique element between the table, the fruit bowl and the canvas. This brand-new perspective deeply influenced the later painters.

Paul gauguin's Never Come Again

In 1897, oil painting on canvas was 61×116 cm. Art collection of Cotlaud College in London.

"Never come again" refers to Edgar Allan Bo's poem "The Raven". In the painting, this big crow turns its head contemptuously, symbolizing Gauguin's disaster. Women are naked and strong, with their backs turned, and lying sadly, which brings people a feeling of great sadness and helplessness.

In order to escape from Paris and his family, he fled to the wild island of Tahiti. It is difficult for people to understand Gauguin's works without understanding his trip to the South Pacific. He was one of the earliest painters who used color as a simple decoration or expression of emotion. He once said, "I hope to express an ancient barbaric luxury through simple nudity."

Alfred Sisley's Loini Canal in Moray

In 1892, the oil painting on canvas was 73×93 cm, and the Orsay Art Collection in Paris.

The simple picture almost makes people realize that there is a canal flowing here, not to mention the moving ships and the tiny figures at work, which can only be appreciated carefully when people are completely immersed in the gray-blue pastoral spring scenery. Sisley prefers landscape painting. In order to capture the changes of light and color, he has tried in different climatic environments. Under Monet's influence, he developed the impressionist style of painting, transforming visual cognition into pure language of light and color, which is the basic principle of impressionism.

Georges seurat's Sunday afternoon in Big Bowl Island

1884-1886 Oil on canvas 205.5×305 cm in Chicago Art Museum.

This fresh and pleasant genre painting has a unique texture, everyone seems to be in a static state, and the picture has a strange sense of silence. Incredibly, every detail in the picture is carefully filled by the painter Seurat with solid color points, which is vividly called "stippling" in the painting world. As soon as this innovative painting was exhibited, it was strongly questioned and despised by artists. However, some people praised it and thought Seurat was "the savior of new art". In the face of criticism, Seurat just said lightly, "I just created paintings in my own way, that's all."

Camille pissarro's Mountain Path, Hermitage Mountain, Pondos Village

In 1875, the oil painting on canvas was 54×65 cm, which was collected in Brooklyn Museum, new york.

The quiet small village looms among the lush trees, and an inclined path meanders and playfully extends to the village. The tone of the picture is simple and subtle, just some combinations of green and white, and little by little, it becomes a complex and layered natural landscape. Pissarro is the most famous impressionist artist. He simplified the landscape into a smooth and coherent pure tone caused by quick brushwork, which initiated the color expression in impressionist painting and had a far-reaching influence on impressionist landscape painting. He was also the only painter who participated in all impressionist painting exhibitions.

Bert Morisso's The Port of Lorant

1869 Oil on canvas 44×73 cm National Art Collection in Washington, D.C.

The woman sat on the edge of the harbor fence carefully and looked shyly at the harbor. Although the sunshine was not strong, she still held up an exquisite sunshade in a proper manner, showing the gentlemanly demeanor recognized by people at that time. This is Morisso's most touching and successful work. As an upper-class woman, her brush is always gentle and elegant. As the wife of Manet's younger brother, her painting style is inevitably influenced by impressionist masters, especially her frank expression of light, and her works are often exhibited with impressionist paintings.

Paul signac's Kreiger's Oil Tank

In 1886, the oil painting on canvas was 65×81 cm, and the Victoria National Art Collection in Melbourne.

The large oil tanks on both sides look like the Colosseum in ancient Rome, and the houses sandwiched in the middle are particularly small. The wall of the house is made of pink and blue, and each brick presents different colors and light and shadow, which is very charming. Bright colors become soft and moving under the performance of stippling. Sinek is a follower of the New Impressionist School. He mastered this painting method when he was less than 20 years old, and combined with the Impressionist style, he developed the techniques of color light and shadow expression, and expounded the theory and color application of the New Impressionism. Around 1900, he gave up the dot-type stippling method and used the primary color square to paint.